United Democratic Party
Founded: 22 April 1962
Dissolved: 23 June 1968
Established by a MCA splinter led by its erstwhile president Lim Chong Eu after a major dispute with UMNO over seat allocations and other issues. UDP was officially registered on 12 July 1962 but dissolved after six years in a bid to set up Gerakan together with former members of LPM. The new party was launched on 24 March 1968 and legalised two months later on 25 May, with Prof Syed Hussein Alatas as founding president. In its debut in the 1969 Malaysia General Election, Gerakan captured the MCA-controlled Penang state and held a joint celebration march with Democratic Action Party, which became a catalyst for the 13 May 1969 racial riots. From 1971, Lim took over as Gerakan chief and the party began to foster ties with Malaysia's governing Alliance. This drew the ire of those who were mainly from the defunct LPM. Led by Tan Chee Khoon, they broke away to form the short-lived Parti Keadilan Masyarakat Malaysia (Malaysian Social Justice Party) or Pekemas. In 1973, Gerakan co-founded Barisan Nasional, a national unity government, along with Alliance and several opposition parties. For nearly four decades, the party headed the BN Penang government but lost the state to DAP and allies in 2008. By the 2018 polls, Gerakan had been wiped out from all legislatures. On 23 June that year, it announced that it would quit BN after 45 years of being in the coalition. However, it expressed interest in joining the new governing PN in September 2020.
Related organisation
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia
(English: Malaysian People's Movement Party)