Parti Melayu Semangat 46 (f.k.a. Semangat 46)
(English: Spirit of 46 Malay Party)
Founded: 3 June 1989
Dissolved: 8 October 1996
The most bitter feud in the history of UMNO Malaysia in 1987 pitted then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's "Team A" against former Finance Minister Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah's "Team B" for control of the party, which led to the original UMNO's dissolution by the court. Mahathir re-registered UMNO while Razaleigh formed a new party that was given a name to commemorate 1946, the year of UMNO's formation. S46 spearheaded two co-existing opposition coalitions, the secular Gagasan Rakyat (People's Concept) and the Islam-based Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (Muslim Unity Movement). In the 1990 General Election, APU swept Kelantan leaving BN without a seat for the first and only time in a Malaysian state. However, the support base of S46 remained confined to the state, which was Razaleigh's domain. In 1994, S46 converted from a multi-racial to a Malay party to become a direct competitor to UMNO and "Parti Melayu" was added to its name. After its prospects further dwindled in the 1995 Malaysia GE, Razaleigh made peace with Mahathir and merged his party with UMNO. PAS and the new Keadilan benefitted from this move in the subsequent 1999 polls, with the former chalking up an unprecedented number of wins and the latter gaining a headstart by capturing former S46 turfs.