Parti Islam Se-Malaysia
(English: Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Pan-Malayan Islamic Party
Founded: 24 November 1951
Originally the Islamic bureau of UMNO Malaya led by Ahmad Fuad Hassan, it branched out as a separate Muslim organisation called Pan-Malayan Islamic Association in 1950. Dual membership of UMNO and PMIA was prohibited after the latter evolved into a political party. In 1953, Ahmad Fuad left to join Onn Ja'afar's Independence of Malaya Party. Abbas Alias took over before handing over the reins to ex-leader of the banned Malay Nationalist Party, Burhanuddin al-Helmy, who veered PMIP left. He passed away in 1969 and his successor, Asri Muda, steered the party right by making nationalism the agenda. On 20 June 1971, PMIP changed its Malay name from "Persatuan Islam Sa-Tanah Melayu" to the present and popularized the "PAS" acronym. In 1973, Asri brought PAS into Barisan Nasional, a coalition government spearheaded by Alliance following the racial riots on 13 May 1969. PAS was expelled from BN in 1977 for attempting to remove its Kelantan Menteri Besar, Muhamed Nasir, which BN supported. This led to the Kelantan Emergency and Muhamed forming Barisan Jemaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front). PMIP was compelled by the authorities to change its symbol to a moon while giving up its star to Berjasa. In the Malaysia General Election of 1978, PAS lost Kelantan to BN and Berjasa. In 1986, Asri was ousted by Yusof Rawa and set up the BN-friendly Parti Hizbul Muslimin Malaysia (Malaysia Muslim People's Party). Under Yusof, the party emphasis on religiosity increased. By 1990, PAS had regained Kelantan as part of Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (Muslim Unity Movement) along with former foes Berjasa and Hamim. For the 2008 and 2013 elections, PAS shifted to a moderate, inclusive stand and was part of Pakatan Rakyat (People's Pact), which did well enough to deny BN a two-thirds majority but in 2015, it reverted to lobbying for Islamic laws and broke off from PR to establish its own alliance, Gagasan Sejahtera (Harmony Concept) with Berjasa. After the 2018 GE where BN lost power to Pakatan Harapan, PAS drew closer to long-time rival UMNO, jointly forming Muafakat Nasional (National Consensus) in 2019, followed by Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) in 2020 with the rest of BN and UMNO splinter Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia, which had left PH, to take over the government from PH through a "back-door" deal.