Parti Keadilan Rakyat
(English: People's Justice Party)
Parti Keadilan Nasional
(English: National Justice Party)
Founded: 28 February 1990
First established as Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia (Malaysia Islamic Community Association), a Trengganu-based minor splinter of Hamim, which itself was a breakaway of PAS. Following the "Reformasi" movement triggered by Malaysia Prime Minister and BN chief Mahathir Mohamad's sacking of his Deputy PM Anwar Ibrahim and expelling him from UMNO where he was sitting deputy president, his supporters headed by his wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ibrahim, took over and re-launched the comatose IMIM as Keadilan on 4 April 1999 instead of registering a new party. The symbol of an eye was conceptualised after Anwar, who was eventually sentenced to prison, was seen spotting a black eye while being escorted to court. After absorbing crossover members from PRM in 2003, Keadilan was renamed PKR and appended the red colour symbol of PRM. Perceived as the opposition linchpin since the defunct S46, PKR anchored several coalitions such as Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front), Barisan Rakyat (People's Front), Pakatan Rakyat (People's Pact) and PH. The party has inducted professionals, activists and former leaders of BN components into its ranks. PSM, a PRM offshoot, contested under its banner for two elections. In the 2018 Malaysia General Election, the PKR symbol was used by PH component parties after the coalition failed to obtain approval for its registration. PH displaced BN to form the government for the first time in Malaysia's history and the returning PM Mahathir, who had become PH's leader, secured a royal pardon for Anwar.