Pakatan Harapan
(English: Hope Coalition)
Founded: 22 September 2015
The successor to Pakatan Rakyat (People's Pact), Barisan Rakyat (People's Front), Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front), Gagasan Rakyat (People's Concept) and Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (Muslim Unity Movement) as the major opposition alliance in Malaysia and the last before the fall of BN. Both GR and APU were led by S46, with GR comprising the secular parties like DAP, PRM and PBS and APU the Muslim parties like PAS, Berjasa and Hamim. BA came about in 1998, with DAP, PAS, PRM and Keadilan entering the Malaysia General Election of 1999 as fellow components but ties between DAP and PAS were frosty due to the latter's insistence on an Islamic state. After 9-11 in USA, DAP left BA and the umbrella ceased after the 2004 GE. In 2008, DAP, PKR and PAS reunited under BR, partnering with Pasok, MDP and the unregistered PSM, with the latter two contesting under the PKR ticket. After the polls, BR evolved into PR, which returned in the 2013 election but history would repeat itself. By June 2015, PR had disintegrated following the announcement by PAS that it would introduce Islamic laws in Kelantan and implement it nationwide if PR comes to power, which triggered the departure of DAP. Several progressive PAS leaders who continued to pursue opposition unity were ousted from party posts. They split away into Amanah and joined DAP and PKR to establish PH. On 20 March 2017, UMNO splinter PPBM, graced by former Malaysia Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad as figurehead, joined PH as its fourth component party. PH sought registration but Malaysia's societies registrar delayed its application on the grounds that the paperwork of PPBM was not in order. Meanwhile, non-government organisation Human Rights Action Force or Hindraf became the coalition's strategic partner. A week after PH parties, contesting under PKR, won the 2018 GE and Mahathir became PM once again, PH's registration was approved on 17 May 2018. However, on 24 February 2020, PPBM, now going by Bersatu, exited PH along with several PKR lawmakers, causing the coalition to lose its majority and return to the opposition.