Alliance Party
Founded: 13 January 1952
Dissolved: 1 July 1974
Began as a union of UMNO and MCA, two key ethnic organisations in Malaya representing the Malay and Chinese communities respectively, it was officially registered on 23 August 1953. UMNO, established by Onn Ja'afar on 11 May 1946, was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman. MCA was formed on 27 February 1949 by members of China's Kuomintang in Malaya and led by Tan Cheng Lock, it was legalised on 8 March 1950. MIC was founded on 4 August 1946 to represent Malaya Indians and led by John Thivy, it joined the coalition on 17 October 1954. Modelled after India's Congress Party, MIC previously aligned with Onn's Independence of Malaya Party to oppose UMNO-MCA. With the birth of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, MCA and MIC replaced the "Malayan" in their names with "Malaysian". From 1955 to 1969, Alliance won every nationwide election in the Federation of Malaya and later Malaysia but in the General Election of 1969, fared below expectations despite being returned to power, which triggered ethnic tensions cumulating into the May 13 racial riots. To stabilise the country, national leaders conceptualised a unity government in 1972 and established coalitions with four opposition parties in 1973 for a start. With that, BN was born and was officially registered on 1 June 1974, while Alliance was gradually phased out. With up to 14 component parties at its peak, BN linchpin UMNO produced all of Malaysia's Prime Ministers, namely the Tunku, Abdul Razak Hussein, Onn's son Hussein Onn, Mahathir Mohamad, Abdullah Badawi and Razak's son Najib Razak. A long-running dispute in 1987 between Mahathir's "Team A" faction and Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah's "Team B" caused the original UMNO to be de-registered on 4 February 1988, with Mahathir setting up UMNO Baru (New UMNO) on 13 February 1988 and Razaleigh, Semangat 46 (Spirit of 46) the following year. Shortly after, "Baru" was dropped. On 8 October 1996, S46 was dissolved and, with most of its members returning to UMNO and soon after, the latter formally dropped the word "Baru" from its name, closing the acrimonious chapter in its history. In 2016, Mahathir left UMNO due to Najib's corruption scandal. Along with his son Mukhriz and Deputy PM Muhyiddin Yassin, both whom were expelled for opposing Najib, they formed Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (Malaysian United Indigenous Party), which joined old foes in Pakatan Harapan (Hope Coalition). PH rode to victory in 2018, changing Malaysia's government for the first time and making Mahathir the inaugural non-BN PM in history. After BN lost power, all except the original three Alliance components left the umbrella. Najib and his wife, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi who had been Muhyiddin's DPM successor and was later UMNO chief, several former BN ministers and lawmakers were hauled up for corruption charges. However, in 2020, Muhyiddin pulled Bersatu out of PH to switch allegiance to BN, replaced Mahathir as PM when the latter resigned in protest against the move and installed a new Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance) government, putting the ousted coalition back in power after 22 months, albeit without its previous dominance.
Component parties
United Malays National
1946 - Present
UMNO 1977 - 1988
Malayan Indian Congress
@ Malaysian Indian Congress
UMNO Baru 1988 - 1997
UMNO 1997 - Present
Malayan Chinese Association Malaysian Chinese Association
Related organisation
Barisan Nasional
(English: National Front)