Alliance Party
Founded: 13 January 1952
Dissolved: 1 July 1974
Began as a union of UMNO and MCA, two key ethnic organisations in Malaya representing the Malay and Chinese communities respectively, it was officially registered on 23 August 1953. UMNO, established by Onn Ja'afar on 11 May 1946, was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman and MCA, inspired by China's Kuomintang, by Tan Cheng Lock on 27 February 1949. MIC, founded on 4 August 1946 and led by John Thivy to represent Malaya Indians, joined the coalition on 17 October 1954. Modelled after India's Congress Party, MIC previously aligned with Onn's Independence of Malaya Party to oppose UMNO-MCA. Both MCA and MIC changed the "Malayan" in their names to "Malaysian" in 1963. From 1955 to 1969, Alliance won every nationwide election in the Federation of Malaya and later Malaysia but in the General Election of 1969, fared below expectations despite being returned to power, which triggered ethnic tensions cumulating into the May 13 racial riots. To stabilise the country, national leaders conceptualised a unity government in 1972 and established coalitions with four opposition parties in 1973 for a start. BN was born and was officially registered on 1 June 1974 and Alliance was gradually phased out. With up to 14 component parties at its peak, BN linchpin UMNO produced all of Malaysia's Prime Ministers, namely the Tunku, Abdul Razak Hussein, Onn's son Hussein Onn, Mahathir Mohamad, Abdullah Badawi and Razak's son Najib Razak. A long-running dispute in 1987 between Mahathir's "Team A" faction and Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah's "Team B" caused the original UMNO to be de-registered on 4 February 1988, with Mahathir setting up UMNO Baru (New UMNO) on 13 February 1988 and Razaleigh, Semangat 46 (Spirit of 46) the following year. Shortly after, "Baru" was dropped. On 8 October 1996, S46 was dissolved and its members returned to UMNO. In 2016, Mahathir left UMNO and in the 2018 GE, he led Pakatan Harapan to victory and became the first non-BN PM in Malaysia's history. After BN lost power, all except the original three Alliance components quit the umbrella. Ex-PM Najib and his wife, along with several former ministers, lawmakers and civil servants, were charged with corruption. However, in early 2020, Mahathir's Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia pulled out PH against his will and switched allegiance to BN and others to form a new National Alliance or Perikatan Nasional government, putting many key leaders of the ousted coalition back in power.
Component parties
United Malays
National Organisation
1946 - Present (Flag)
1977 - 1988 (Symbol)
Malayan Indian Congress
@ Malaysian Indian Congress
1988 - Present (Symbol)
Malayan Chinese Association Malaysian Chinese Association
Related organisation
Barisan Nasional
(English: National Front)