MALAYSIA GENERAL ELECTION 1964
This was the only Federal GE held during the time Singapore was part of Malaysia. Seats in the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat), the lower chamber of Malaysia's Parliament, and 11 state assemblies were up for grabs. Most opposition parties fielded several candidates who contested both, while Alliance and Negara had only one each. Known as "dual candidates", their names are shaded. PAP put up a token slate in 11 federal and 15 state seats, which were mostly urban constituencies with a large ethnic Chinese population and traditional MCA Malaysia turfs. This was to offer itself as an alternative choice for UMNO Malaysia within the ruling Alliance but Malaysia Prime Minister and UMNO chief Tunku Abdul Rahman rebuffed this, declaring that UMNO would stick to its partner. Among PAP's candidates were former Malaysian Trades Union Congress president Tan Chong Bee and Kang Eng Wah who had crossed over from MPSF, former Malaya Federal Legislative Councillor, MTUC secretary-general and Negara member K. V. Thaver, former MCA member Dr Too Chee Cheong and Charlie Leong from the defunct Malayan Party. Singapore's main opposition BS supported fellow left-wing outfit MPSF. Expecting to replicate its success in the Singapore GE of 1963, the outcome instead turned out to be disastrous for PAP, which clinched only one parliamentary seat by C. V. Devan Nair and none among the state seats it contested, with more than half of its 17 candidates forfeiting their deposits. PAP's lone victory was in Selangor, where it fared better compared to other states. Alliance triumphed at the national level and in ten states except Kelantan, which was retained by PMIP. Closely-watched contests were those involving the Tunku, Deputy PM Abdul Razak, party leaders Tan Siew Sin (MCA), V. T. Sambanthan (MIC), Zulkifli Muhammad (PMIP), Tan Chee Khoon (LPM), Ahmad Boestamam (PRM), Dr Lim Chong Eu (UDP), Garieb Raouf (Negara), the Seenivasagam brothers (PPP) and state Menteri Besars and Chief Ministers. Newcomer Alliance candidate from UMNO, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, who was to become Malaysia's longest-serving PM, made his debut while Ibrahim Abdul Rahman of Seberang Tengah, Penang, was the father of Anwar Ibrahim, a man who would one day became DPM and opposition chief in Malaysia. After the polls, the legislatures of Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak were allocated 15, 16 and 24 seats respectively in the Dewan Rakyat, as none would be apportioned among the three states until the next Malaysia GE. The additional parliamentarians from Singapore included PM Lee Kuan Yew, DPM Toh Chin Chye, ministers Goh Keng Swee, Ong Pang Boon, S. Rajaratnam, Yong Nyuk Lin, Jek Yeun Thong, Lim Kim San, Othman Wok, PAP Assembly Members Abdul Rahim Ishak, Wee Toon Boon, Ho See Beng (who was replaced by E. W. Barker after six months) and BS AMs Chia Thye Poh, Kow Kee Seng and Lim Huan Boon. Each state also nominated two people, not necessarily state assembly representatives, to the Senate (Dewan Negara), Malaysia's upper house. The PAP government pleased the Tunku by adopting his suggestion to appoint Singapore UMNO leader Ahmad Taff as one of the two Singapore Senators. On 9 May 1965, PAP spearheaded the formation of a Malaysian Solidarity Convention with UDP, PPP, SUPP and Parti Machinda Sarawak to campaign for a "Malaysian Malaysia". This upset the Alliance government as it was seen to be challenging the special position of ethnic Malays. Recurring racial tensions and PAP's proposal for a looser confederation comprising Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Penang to ease these tensions was decried as seditious and consequently led to Singapore's expulsion from the Federation on 9 August 1965. With PAP Malaya de-registered, Nair, Goh Hock Guan, Tan Chong Bee and Dr Too were among the ten who co-founded Democratic Action Party, along with Rajaratnam's brother S. Seeveratnam, to continue the cause. Noor Jettey stayed on with DAP. Lai Tha Chai and Dr Wong Lin Ken joined Chua Sian Chin to serve as PAP Members of the Singapore Parliament, as did Nair years after he returned to Singapore in 1969. Nair eventually became President of Singapore in 1981. Also settling in Singapore were Thaver and Liang Teck Him, who continued their service to the labour movement under the PAP-affiliated National Trades Union Congress. Goh, who took over Nair as DAP chief, later fell out with the party and joined Dr Lim's Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, while Dr Too returned to MCA Malaysia.
Nomination day: 21 March 1964 [Sat]
Peninsular Electorate: 2,763,077
Election deposit: RM500 (Parliament seat)